Although domestic cats and humans have lived with one another for thousands of years, relatively little scientific research has been conducted with cats- especially when compared to the body of research on the domestic dog. Many questions regarding cat behavior, especially their social behavior with humans, remain unanswered. Currently, pet cats outnumber dogs by almost 10 million in the US alone and millions of cats live in shelters or are free-roaming outdoors. Over 3.4 million cats enter already crowded shelters each year and of those surrendered by owners, approximately 27% are surrendered due to behavioral issues or incompatibility between cat and owner. Therefore, there are many applied benefits from future research in this area. This talk will cover our scientific understanding of various aspects of cat behavior and cognition and current research being conducted in this area. We will also discuss ways to utilize this knowledge to improve cat welfare and strengthen the human-cat bond.